How to Develop Health Bakery Products?

Keshav. B.Kamaliya and Rema S.

Mushrooming growth of fast food joints serving fancy bakery products like bread-butter, pizza, burger, puff, hotdog, pastries etc. along with traditional bakery products like biscuits, cookies, cakes etc. is the indication that bakery industry has developed its own remarkable position in the industrial map of India (Kamliya, and Rema 2003). According to Datamonitor (1999) India’s bakery and cereal market is worth $1 billion, the 3rd largest in Asia Pacific after Japan and Australia. It is larger than the Chinese market, which by comparison is worth just $ 0.93 billion. But still the per capita per year consumption of bakery product in India is roughly 1 to 2 kg as compared to 10 to 50 kg in advanced countries. The gap is thus wide and there is ample scope for increasing the production of bakery products manifold in the years to come. One of the ways to capture the developing market is possibly by providing therapeutic bakery products because increasing health consciousness among urban people and health awareness among rural people will certainly lead to an increase in the demand for such products (Kamaliya 2000).

In our country, out of the 85,000 bakery units nearly 75,000 operate in the unorganised small-scale sector occupying 65% of the market share (Kaur et al. 2004). Therefore the future demand of bakery products has to be met only by small-scale sectors because of the Government’s policy of reservation. Therefore there is a need to develop healthy and therapeutic products using low cost technology with minimum changes in formula and procedure, which is yet suitable in their working conditions.

An attempt made in this paper to discuss development of such products in small-scale bakery units.


Methodology

The entire planning has to be broadly divided into three parts consisting of product development, analysis of nutrients as well as physical and physico-chemical parameters and nutritional assessment on animals / humans. An overview of the experimental design is depicted in Fig 1.

Product Development

There is a need to standardized in laboratory conditions to replace selected ingredients or substitute partially or fully and evaluate for sensory acceptability in a series of steps. These can be categorized as:


Recipe Selection

This process is to be carried out to collect information on the commercial bakery product that could be modified for therapeutic purposes.
Data Collection:The data on formulas and methods of preparation of commonly available bakery products in the local market can be obtained through a survey of bakeries surrounding to the experimental station. The similar data should also be collected through literature.
The following points need to be observed to study the actual technology adopted for production:

  • The techniques adopted for dough making and other processing steps.
  • The sensory feel of the dough at all stages of development.
  • Time, temperature and relative humidity needed at different processing stages.
  • Precautions to be taken while processing.

Data Comparison:The data obtained is to be compiled and compared with similar data collected through literature and then the recipe suitable to laboratory conditions be selected.
Raw Ingredients Selection: Selection of different locally available raw ingredients depending on the nutritional merit for fortification in the various bakery products should be made.
Selection of Subsequent Changes in Recipe: Study of the baking properties of newly introduced ingredients be made and subsequent changes needed to be taken in processing be decided on the basis of collected data.

Recipe Optimization

The following successive steps need to be taken.

Raw Ingredients Procurement: Survey of the availability and quality of various raw ingredients needed to develop the bakery products must be made. Procurement of only good quality raw ingredients in sufficient quantity should be made. Immediately after the purchase treatment and storage of the materials in the laboratory as mentioned in Table 1 be made. The same materials as and when required during the study should be used. 

Standardization of Control Products: The selected commercial recipes should be prepared successfully in the laboratory conditions. For this, repeated trials of product preparations until products satisfactory in comparison to the commercial products are obtained should be carried out. ‘Control product’ by combining selected commercial recipes wherever necessary or by making minor changes in the quantity and type of raw ingredients as well as processing conditions could be prepared. Comparison of the products thus obtained with market product(s) through sensory evaluation until a 90% score achieved on comparing with the market products should be made; it may be named as ‘Control Product’.

Formula Optimization for Experimental Products:The main raw ingredients selected for fortification either partially or fully with ingredients used in the control formula should be substituted or replaced. Pre-decided changes in ingredients and procedure should be employed subsequently. Repeated baking trials with changes in quantities of appropriate ingredients as well as processing conditions gradually changing one after another should be carried out. These changes must be based on sensory trials and similarity to ‘control product’ is to be emphasized. Finally, the ‘experimental products’ similar to control products should be optimised.

Establishment of Modified Standards: The modified formulas and methods of preparation obtained through the optimization process as standards should be taken as established followed throughout the study.

Sensory Evaluation

The process was carried out in the following successive steps.

Screening of Panelists: The post graduate and research students as well as staff members belonging to any branches related to food science could be selected on the basis of their interest and availability. The members must be screened out as panel members through threshold test as suggested by Ranganna (1995).

Providing each panel member with increasing concentration of salt and sugar solutions on two different days must perform the threshold test. The panellists should be asked to identify and rank the samples in increasing order of concentration of taste from the test solutions offered. Those who are able to give correct responses in 3 successive trails are selected as panel member of judges.

Training to Panel Members: A basic training on different visual tests and characteristics of baked products to all the screened panellists should be imparted. The test includes volume, crust colour, nature of the crust, crumb colour, crumb texture, crumb grain, aroma and taste, mouth feel, uniformity of bake and form, symmetry of shape etc. Control as well as various bakery products using newly introduced raw ingredients should be prepared and shown with description of the desirable and the undesirable sensory characteristics.

Preliminary Sensory Analysis: The initial acceptability tests of the modified products prepared with a wide range of replacement of selected raw ingredients in comparison to control products using a 9-point hedonic rating scale test should be carried out. For this, products on randomly coded paper plates at room temperature be served. Tapped water for cleansing the palate between samples to the panelists be supplied and asked to assess their degree of liking of samples on a paper ballot with a 9-point hedonic rating scale of 1 to 9 (Larmond 1977).

Products under ‘day light’ illumination and in isolated booths within the laboratory should be evaluated and the ranks of hedonic rating into scores be converted and analysed statistically.

The product score of at least 5 points with maximum incorporation of the newly introduced raw ingredients should be selected for final study. Narrow down replacement rate of newly introduced raw In such a way the percent replacement of newly introduced raw ingredients of “chosen product” can be narrowed down. For example if “chosen product” contain 5% replacement of newly introduced raw ingredient then the percent replacement for final selection would be 4, 5 and 6%.

Final Sensory Assessment: In this way the final selection of the modified product prepared with a narrow range of incorporation of newly introduced raw ingredients using composite scoring test can be made, assessed and compared to control products as described in a 9-point hedonic rating scale. The only difference is that, panellists be asked to evaluate and score essential quality attributes / characteristics in the prescribed proforma provided for this purpose. The proforma prepared on the basis of the proforma prescribed by CFTRI should be prepared on the basis of the composite scoring test of Pyler (1988).

Scores so obtained be assessed statistically. The developed product which scores the highest is to be considered as the ‘experimental product’ and used for subsequent animal / human experiments.

Analysis of Food Property

The quantity of the finished products depends to a great extent on the quality of the raw ingredients used. Therefore, to ensure quality, all the major ingredients procured from the open market and their composite blends prepared at the laboratory need to be analysed for nutritional and / or physicochemical properties. To assess the affect of replacement of the raw ingredients on the quality of the finished products the control as well as developed bakery products needs to be analysed for their food properties. The various properties to be evaluated could be segmented into 4 categories.

Evaluation of Nutritional Composition: All the major raw ingredients as well as control products and the finally developed products should be analysed for moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate, energy (calculated), soluble, insoluble and total fibre, calcium, phosphorus and iron to assess their exact nutrient content.

Evaluation of Physico-chemical Characteristics: The physical properties of bakery products are greatly affected by various physico-chemical properties of the flour. Therefore, analysis of the different types of flours and composite flour blends for wet and dry gluten content, sedimentation value, alkaline water retention capacity and water absorption power should be made. Ability of yeast to ferment the dough by estimating the dough rising capacity should also be analysed.

Evaluation of Physical Properties: Physical properties of control and developed products be measured and compared to select one product from the various products developed of the same variety. Physical parameters namely weight, volume, specific volume, diameter, thickness, spread ratio, percent spread factor, hardness, firmness and firmness index are to be measured or calculated.

Cost Analysis: Current cost at the time of preparation of the raw ingredients in the wholesale commercial market is considered as basic cost. 50% of basic cost be added as overhead charges to this and considered to be the total cost as the production cost. The selling price is fixed by adding 25% profit to production cost. The experimental product could be sold easily at a premium rate. The premium-selling price should be calculated with additional marginal premium charges of just 10% more than normal selling price and expressed as percent of extra income gained as compared to the control product. Cost of the experimental product be compared with the market price of similar branded products if readily available.

Nutritional Assessment

The beneficial effect of feeding the experimental products be evaluated by comparing the results with the control product or with feeding under normal / control conditions to the selected models. The series of steps undertaken for evaluation are categorised into 3 sub phases as described below and depicted in Fig. 1.

Subject Selection: Subjects for feeding experimental and control products as per their targeted action be selected like animal (albino rates, rabbits), human male, female, children, old age).

Feeding Trials: Feed experimental products to the selected are subjects in different quantities and for different duration of time using different replacement levels, to achieve the targeted action.

Evaluation of Parameter: Various parts of the body are affected differently depending on the type of diet fed. Therefore, analysis of various organs (blood, plasma, liver and kidney) before, in between and after the feeding trials for the various parameters should be taken. Similarly, measurement of height, weight, waist and heap diameter in case of the human study be taken. Analysis of the results (data) obtained statistically, comparison and usage of that directly or indirectly (after further calculations) as a tool to evaluate the final effect and to draw a final conclusion be taken.

Conclusion

The bakery products could be converted into health products, which is the demand of present consumers.

 

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Reference

 

 

  1. Datamonitor (1999). Datamonitor strategic Market Analysis Company. Beverages & Food World 26(6):25.
  2. Kamaliya KB (2000) Indian bakery industry at a glance in the first decade of the 21st century. Proceedings of international seminar on wheat farm to food – first decade of the new millennium, Banglore, India. Wheat product promotion society, New Delhi, India (orgsr), pp 252-257.
  3. Kamaliya KB and Rema S (2003) Nutritional modification of the bakery products. Processed Food Ind 7(1): 23-27.
  4. Kaur AP, Shukla FC and Kaur A (2004) Present scenario and future needs of bakery industry in India. Processed Food Ind 7(7):
  5. Larmond E (1977) Laboratory Methods for Sensory Evaluation of Foods. Publication No. 1637, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada. pp 74.
  6. Pyler EJ (1988) 13-16.Baking Science and Technology, 3rd edn. Sosland Publishing Co., Kansna, Missouri, pp 903-904.
  7. Ranganna S (1986) Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. 2nd edn. Tata McGraw Hill Publ. Co. New Delhi.
 

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