Cost-cutting strategies for Supply Chain in Agribusines

cost-cutting-strategies for Supply ChainVijay Sardana

IT has been observed that in retail sector there is increased fixed cost on the pretext of owning every thing to ensure quality. It clearly indicates that these organisations are not sure about their own management system and the people hired by them to ensure quality and delivery. It may be due the fact that professionals are being enlisted for the first time entering into supply chain management business in agri-food sector.

Innovation is however required to manage the business of supply chain. Some examples are being given in this article to help managers to manage and reduce cost of operations.

Managers should find creative ways to mitigate supply chain costs while maintaining operational efficiency. New approaches, technologies, and methodologies like third party logistics provider (3PL), radio frequency identification (RFID) rentals, and attribute-based demand planning can drastically reduce supply chain costs and increase customer satisfaction.

Third Party Logistics Provider

The use of a 3PL has become a cost-effective way for small to medium businesses & enterprises (SMBs / SMEs) to compete with larger organizations. A 3PL company charges for storage, labour, technology, and integration, or a combination of these services. This type of model enables a company to operate a virtual warehouse cycle without the physical entity (however, a company that uses a 3PL always owns the inventory being stored). There are several service options that can be incorporated within a 3PL arrangement. The most common business model within this structure is to house, pick, pack, and ship the items through a third party supplier.

Often, 3PLs receive the information from the original vendor, process the order, and drop-ship the products directly to the customer with the original company's packaging and shipping labels. This enables the original company to better compete with larger or more efficient companies within the industry. An SMB can now offer a wide range of products at reasonably lower prices as the potential advantage in this model is the ability to use an existing infrastructure. Services like storage (especially for controlled food items, which may all require specific conditions), picking of the products, and integration of the 3PL system into the vendor's own system (for efficient order processing, consolidation, and shipping) are already in place, and can handle the additional services required.

An example of this model is large number of Internet based on-line shopping businesses like,, etc. This illustrates the success and gains that an efficiently executed 3PL model can bring.

However, an obstacle in 3PL model is lack of inventory control. The company to whom the inventory belongs has no visibility into the management and execution of fulfilment of product to its customers. The originating company cannot easily track the data generated from the purchase transaction, as this information does not belong to the primary company. It means that it has difficulty in tracking total units sold at a particular time. Demand planning, sales forecasting, and inventory replenishment are compromised as a result. This disadvantage is usually a determining factor that motivates many companies to keep their supply chains within the organization. With improvement in information technology and web-enabled options available, it is becoming a key factor. Real time information and competent people will be the key factor in making supply chain effective.

RFID Outsourcing

Recording of information on real time basis in a digital format can reduce lot of problems to great extent. RFID technology has capability to change with time. A volatile and constantly changing RFID market is opening the door to flexibility for SME manufacturers and retailers. There are several concerns that are addressed through this model: a full RFID implementation may be too cost-prohibitive; the organization may not have the resources to complete a forced mandate pushed down from key suppliers; or suppliers might require compliance in a short time span that means the organization cannot commit to a full RFID implementation. From the resource, cost, and expertise standpoint, this model is useful.

RFID rental companies have gained popularity in the market, as they can offer a whole or partial RFID solution. Companies in the RFID space offer the rentals of tags, interrogators, encoders, and even middleware. Most Many companies within this market offer consulting on RFID implementations, and can rapidly comply with mandates. Some even offer supplier integration to external trading partners for full supply chain collaboration. The expertise gained through knowledgeable partners can prove very valuable in avoiding common mistakes relating to the implementation. Issues with tag placement, inconsistent reads, and data interpretation can be avoided because of the experience the partner will have acquired from past projects. The data integration and aggregation from the RFID system can be interpreted by the partner for corporate consumption, and be formatted correctly for input to the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. The partner will advise the customer on how to manage and further understand the power of the new information.

This model can assist in planning, testing, and invoking a pilot programme for the organization. With this option, an organization can also lease equipment and upgrade when new technology becomes available without going through significant capital expenses. The difficulties with this model must be weighed effectively to achieve maximum gain. There are a few drawbacks to consider if this model is pursued. While selecting an RFID outsourcing solution, always ensure there is an exit strategy built into the contract. If, for whatever reason, the company needs to change strategy or to find a more cost effective solution, there should be a way out of the current agreement. This has to be addressed by the vendor receiving the outsourced product or services. It is not usual practice for RFID outsourcers to issue an opt-out clause, so the vendor must specify that there is an equitable way out of the contract should conditions change.

Also, if supply strategy should change, there are many logistics and financial issues to deal with if the RFID component is outsourced. The organization possibly may not have planned for the implications of having these services returned to an in-house process. Implications the organization will have to consider include the acquisition cost of new infrastructure, hardware, and software; integration; compatibility with current systems; and functional and technical resources. Warehouse space and labour, and the resources to execute the handling component if products are involved, need to be considered. With each of these tasks, there are several steps involved to execute each procedure, which can consume additional time, resources, and budget if not planned properly.

Many 3PL companies have already installed RFID systems to assist their clients in inventory management and order execution.

Attribute-based Demand Planning

The goal of a supply chain is to operate at the least possible money invested in inventory while maximizing efficiency and adaptability to changing customer demands. An approach to reducing the size of the chain is to reduce the amount of inventory within that chain. It can lead to recovery of money that can be applied to the other use to improve company's bottom line. A method of doing this is attribute-based demand planning. This is a variation of the just-in-time (JIT) methodology for inventory reduction. Attribute-based demand planning is defined as the granular differentiation of product, with additional products or services added to products in order to increase value or to minimize the total inventory carried. This needs innovation based on the understanding of the local markets and consumer behaviour.


Increased selling price (and gross revenue) for specialty products arises from the specific requirements that can be added to the items for specific consumption, location of manufacture, and specifications of raw materials. An example of this is a food processing company. Specific needs of raw material can be projected in market that is in inventory. Customers in a particular region can request a specific need; the company will then schedule the resources for this operation (for both labour and machinery) to be completed. With the value-added component of providing extra fine polished rice, the company can charge a higher selling price to the consumer.

Allowing substitutes enhances product differentiation. Granularity for product differentiation can reduce inventory costs by enabling more definitive forecasting (for contract negotiations), and a finer level of detail can be used for demand planning.

Customer service can be improved by having available-to-promise (ATP) and similar products available for sale. With the availability of real-time stock reporting, customer service can give the consumer an accurate picture of delivery time.

Inventories are reduced with a product pooling strategy and similar component strategy. By invoking a pooling strategy for inventory, if the finished good requires many similar base components that must be assembled to complete the final product, the company may use similar parts for completion of the good (as long as it does not make a difference in the finished product).

Efficiencies for operation and machine scheduling are increased. By creating a clearer picture of planning, operations can schedule its resources, labour, and machines to complete the job.


There are many approaches to maximizing the efficiency and reducing the costs of a supply chain. One must consider the type of supply chain currently instituted, and closely analyse how these methods can benefit the current structure. It may be useful to follow a road map for supply chain evaluation:

  • Assessment of the current supply chain and identification of all bottlenecks and anomalies should be made.
  • Once identified, a plan on how these situations can be corrected should be made.
  • The options and possible costs may be evaluated, and the return on investment (ROI) for any solutions that may be required be calculated.
  • Key performance indicators (KPIs) that are industry standards should be computed. This information can usually be found on industry web sites for specific verticals.
  • The strategies, and methodologies that would solve the constraints and bottlenecks should be implemented.
  • The supply chain with the new measures in place should be revaluated; the new baseline with the increased productivity gains should be re-established.
  • Assessment of the state of the chain, and improvement in performance along the entire chain should be a continuing process.
    The options of 3PL, RFID outsourcing, and attribute-based demand planning can add significant value to the company by saving money, reducing the size of the chain, and even allowing the company to compete with some of the larger players within the space. ARPL India, with whom the author is associated, has conducted many case studies.
    The 3PL and the RFID outsourcing options best fit in any SME model. Attribute-based demand planning is best suited for large organizations that require constant product differentiation and that have large supply chains. The physical reduction of total parts carried within the chain will lead to significant savings over the course of the time.
    One should therefore be careful that each step listed in the road map requires full analysis and execution, and will lead to projects for each task. This rapidly becomes a large endeavour not to be taken lightly. If invoked, the company should plan for time, resources, and lost revenue from shutdown time when there is credit crunch in the market.




Managing IPR

Managing Intellectual Property

Managing Intellectual Property

“Managing Intellectual Property” is a series of articles on intellectual property rights in the trade related matters. The series covers various dimensions of IPR, pertainign to the food processing industry, in the form of simplified legal text with suitable cases studies. We hope the series will benefit the food processors, policy makers, executives, managers, researchers, traders and other stakeholders in the processed food industry.Read More

Current Topics

Current Topics

‘Current topics’ provides the rapid advances in the food processing sector that have taken place in the recent past. The series is being contributed by Dr. V.H Potty – our editorial consultant and Deputy Director (Rtd), CFTRI. He is the doyen of food processing industry in India. We feel that an intensive review of the major issues concerning food processing industry would be of great value to our readers.

Read More

Recent Development

Recent Development

New developments in the sphere of processed food industry take place every now and then, which results in the overall development of the entire food sector. Dr. Rajat K. Baisya — our editorial consultant, and professor of marketing and strategic management at department of management studies, IIT Delhi — keeps a keen eye on these developments in food processing sector as and when they happen. The series has recently passed its 200 mark in its print version.
Read More

Cold Chain

Cold Chain Management

Keeping in view the importance of freezing and cold chain in food business 'Processed Food Industry' has decided to introduce a new series of article ‘A to Z of Frozen Food Operation’. The series is contributed by O S Gautam — a known food consultant and Director, Delicacy International — is being presented here. We hope our readers will be benefited by his experience and give us their feedback.
Read More

Supply Chain

Supply Chain

“Managing Supply Chain & Marketing of Food Products” The purpose of initiating this series of articles is to discus some important dimensions of food processing industry, which can be of some help for decision makers at various levels in food business. This series looks into macro-economic policy parameters, which affect food consumption and retailing patterns and consumer behaviours. We will also evaluate various micro-level developments in processed-food-industry world and their impact on food business, food retailing and consumer behaviour.
Read More


Copyright © 2019 All Rights Reserved | Designed & Developed by Netnovaz Web Solutions