Doda burfi, a heat desiccated and popular sweetmeat of northern India is characterized by caramelized and nutty flavour and granular texture. Although manufacturing of doda burfi is confined to the cottage industry, its mechanized production is needed for higher production rate and better quality control on account of its increasing popularity. Dhruv Juyal and LPS Rajput discuss the traditional Indian Dairy Products and method of doda burfi preparation.
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Milk and milk-based products have been a good source of nutrition to human health. (Mohanta et al 2016). Milk has been described as nature’s nearly “perfect food” in that it provides vital nutrients like proteins, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, lactose in balanced proportions. Traditional Indian dairy products contain a significant proportion of milk nutrients and therefore are highly nutritious. Burfi is the most popular Khoa based traditional Indian Dairy Product all over India.
Burfi: A Traditional Indian Sweet
The generic nomenclature “Burfi” covers a wide range of product variations that include plain, danedar, dudh, chocolate etc. has variation in flavor, color, body, and texture. Burfi is prepared by heating a mixture of milk solids (Khoa) and sugar to a homogenous consistency followed by cooling and cutting into small cubes. These products are very delicious and good for health. The addition of cereals like wheat and rice, fruits, fruit pulps, and vegetables in milk results into value addition in terms of nutrition. It is a common practice in the Indian continent to consume milk along with cereals and fruits.
These products are highly nutritious and contain minor constituents that are deficient in milk are supplemented by cereal and vice versa Such type of product is also very useful for infants and growing children’s because of its flavor and its nutritional value, which provides essential nourishment for the body growth and maintenance in infants (Devraju et al 2017). Several types of foods or milk products are developed based on cereals foods such as malt milk food, infant foods etc. which are very nutritious, healthy and popular food (Aneja et al 2002). In this manner sprouted wheat-based milk product called Doda Burfi is being manufactured.
Doda burfi simply called as “Doda” or “Dhoda“, is an immensely popular milk-cereal based traditional Indian Dairy Product of Northern India. The sweet is particularly famous in states like Punjab, Haryana, and Western U.P and the product is made from germinated wheat flour (angoori atta), buffalo milk and sugar with small amounts of Indian cultured dahi and citric acid and garnished with various nuts such as almonds, cashews, and pistachio. However, the garnishing entities are purely optional and vary from one manufacturer to another.
The product is characterized by pleasant caramelized flavor, dark brown color and a sticky granular body. Conventional doda burfi contains most of its nutrients in pre-digested form owing to the germination process of wheat and serves as an excellent source of dietary fiber, which is usually absent in other dairy products. Recently various traditional Indian Dairy Product products such as rasogolla, milk cake, kalakand, kheer and some other regional specific products like the range of burfi, channa murki, payasam etc. are being explored and gaining popularity in various countries.
Method of preparation of Doda burfi
Though the recent practice of manufacturing such traditional Indian Dairy Products is being undertaken by some renowned manufacturers still the product carries the limitation of short shelf life and early spoilage due to microbial contamination especially yeast and mould growth in sweetmeats due to high sugar content. (Chawla et al 2015) However, being prepared at a small scale, the hygienic conditions usually are not maintained and thus the inferior quality product is often marketed (Patil, 2002).
Of the total milk commercially processed, about 50–55% is converted by the traditional sector into a variety of milk products (Banerjee, 1997). Though exact figures for the production and demand of doda burfi are not available, the market for traditional dairy products is valued around Rs. 50,000 crores annually (Aggarwal, 2007).
It can be prepared by the two methods described below:
1. The traditional method of manufacturing Doda burfi
Traditionally, doda burfi is prepared from buffalo milk. In this method, milk is inoculated with curd culture and left for three to four hours so that it develops acidity up to 0.20 percent. It is then mixed with a mixture of germinated wheat flour and wheat flour (ungerminated) in the ratio of (flour: milk; 1:10) and left undisturbed at room temperature for 1-1.5 hours.
The mixture is then cooked over a slow flame till whole milk gets coagulated. The temperature is raised thereafter and when after the ¾ water has been evaporated, sugar is added (16%) and the whole mixture is cooked quickly at the temperature of 85-90°C with continuous stirring and scrapping. On cooling, the product is garnished with nuts and cardamom (Singh and Kumar, 2006).
2. An improved method of manufacturing Doda burfi
Jha (2003) has standardized the process of manufacturing of doda burfi at a laboratory scale. In this, standardized buffalo milk (12% SNF) is acidified using citric acid (50% solution) and left undisturbed for 15- 30 min, which is then blended with desired proportions of flour and malted wheat flour to milk ratio (1:8), and in order to allow proper moistening, the slurry is kept at room temperature for 30 min.
Afterward, the slurry is cooked at 60°C with continuous scrapping and stirring so that the products do not get stick at the bottom of the vessel. When the product approaches a pasty consistency, the temperature is then raised to 80°C with the concurrent addition of sugar. Further heating and scraping lead to the development of brown colour and thick consistency product. Heating is continued until free fat oozes out and finally the mixture is poured stainless steel moulds so as to give the product the desired shape.
Doda burfi is a heat desiccated sweetmeat of northern India having high-fat content along with the additional benefits of dietary fiber provided by cereal component which otherwise is a deficient component in dairy products. (Chawla et al, 2014). A feasibility study for mechanized production of doda burfi with improved efficiency using SSHE has been done by (Devraju, 2010).
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