Resistant starch is defined as the product of starch and starch degradation. It is similar to fiber and resists digestion in small intestines but instead ferments in the large intestine. Let’s answer some common questions about resistant starch.

People have been eating starch for thousands of years. Starches usually break down into glucose when they are digested. Some starches are difficult to digest, so the term resistant starch is used. Resistant starch is now more important because of its positive effects on human health, including prebiotic effects, laxation and hypocholesterolemic, and hypoglycemic effects. It also reduces the risk of colon cancer and ulcerative colitis. Let’s answer some common questions about resistant starch.

What is resistant starch?

Resistant starch is defined as the product of starch and starch degradation. It is similar to fiber and resists digestion in small intestines but instead ferments in the large intestine.

What are the different types of resistant starch?

There are many types of resistant starch that have been identified to date. Their classification is based upon their physical and origin characteristics.

  • RS1: This starch type is resistant because it is trapped in the food matrix. The starch is physically blocked from enzymes. The starch can be released by milling or grinding food, making it more accessible and easier to digest.
  • RS2: Because of the nature and structure of the starch, this type of starch is naturally resistant. RS2 occurs in foods where the starch is eaten raw (e.g., Unripe bananas) or granules that do not gel during cooking are examples of RS2 (e.g., High-amylose cornstarch).
  • RS3: This type of starch can be formed when gelatinized starch has been cooked and cooled. It can happen naturally in normal food processing (e.g., cooked and cooled potatoes) or can occur during the manufacture of RS-rich ingredients.
  • RS4: This starch type is made by adding chemical bonds to starch polymers that inhibit the action of digestive amylases. The type and extent of bonding determine the degree of inhibition. The types and extent of amylolysis inhibition can be caused by chemistries such as dextrinization and etherification, e.g., solubility and process tolerance.

Are these types of resistant starch found naturally, or are they manufactured?

Both. Whole grains can deliver RS1, green bananas deliver RS2, and RS3 is found in ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, bread crusts, cooked and cooled potatoes, and cooked and cooled pasta. RS4 can be made from many sources, including wheat, potato, tapioca, and other ingredients.

What is the purpose of resistant starch in the baking industry?

Resistance starch can be used in baking to increase the total dietary fiber content of bakery foods. It allows bakeries to make high-fiber products without introducing any taste or flavorings.

Are there consumers who are interested in high-fiber products?

Yes, a selection of healthy high fibre bread mixes and concentrates to serve a wide range of baking applications like sandwich breads, Buns, Rolls, etc., are in high demand.

Are consumers prone to equate high fiber with bad taste?

High-fiber products were once compared to sawdust and tree bark in the past. However, bakeries can increase fiber content without altering taste with resistant starch.

What type of resistant starch can be used in baking food applications?

RS4 can be used in any bakery that uses flour. This ingredient replaces a portion of the flour in a bakery recipe.

Is it possible to substitute RS4 for flour?

Sometimes. Bakers use RS4 to replace gluten when the flour content is reduced. Bread rises because gluten is necessary. You can make sure your bread rises perfectly by using gluten or a protein substitute.

Does RS4 have any effect on a finished product?

RS4 is not infused with any off-flavors. It maintains taste and appearance. It can be used to modify the texture of some baked goods. Research has shown that resistant starch can give the dough pleasant tenderness.

Is resistant starch able to make other healthier high-fiber products?

Bakers can make low-carbohydrate, low-calorie bakery products by incorporating resistant starch in their baking recipes.

How does resistant starch work?

Resistant starch is not digested by the small intestine but fermented instead in the large intestine. It helps to lower the calories found in bakery foods. It can also be used in place of flour to lower a product’s carbohydrate content. The fiber content of resistant starch can also be reduced by decreasing net carbohydrate count.

What is the difference between fiber and resistant starch?

Resistant starch is similar to fiber and promotes good health. Some types of resistant starch deliver fiber. Food products containing RS2 or RS4 can be labeled as products containing fiber. Foods with RS1 can be labeled with fiber only if the whole grains are intact. The whole grains lose their resistant starch if they are ground finely. Foods containing RS3 can’t be listed as containing fiber.

Are we consuming as much fiber as is recommended?

No. According to the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, an adult should consume 28g fiber for every 2000 calories each day. It has been estimated that the average resistant starch intake in developed countries ranges from 3-6 grams/day for Northern Europeans, Australians, and Americans, 8.5 grams/day for Italians, and 10-15 grams/day in Indian and Chinese diets. The higher consumption of starch-containing foods like pasta and rice likely accounts for a higher intake of resistant starch in Italy, India, and China.

What other health benefits can resistant starch offer?

There are many health benefits of resistant starch. Research has shown that resistant starch reduces blood sugar’s glycemic effect, improves insulin sensitivity, lowers bad cholesterol, increases good cholesterol, and promotes colon health by increasing butyrate production.